What are DOIs and URLs and how do I format them?


What are DOI's and URLs?

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique set of letters and numbers which gives a persistent link to a resource on the internet. This could be an article, a book or a chapter of a book.

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is an address where the resource can be found on the internet.

If you can find a DOI for a resource you are using, include this in the reference at the end (see the relevant tab on the APA 7th online referencing guide for how this should look).

How do I format DOIs and URLs in a reference in APA7?

Enter DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks

DOIs should be entered as follows: https://doi.org/xxxxx

https://doi.org/ is how the DOI is presented as a link, and xxxxx refers to the DOI number.

The DOI format has changed over time, standardise DOIs into the current format for all entries. For example, use https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.117093 in your reference even though the article, published in 2010, presented the number as doi:10.3945/jn.109.117093.

Do not add a full stop after the DOI or URL because it may interfere with link.

Press enter key immediately after DOI to activate it, so it turns blue.


  • Last Updated Aug 24, 2022
  • Views 9037
  • Answered By Elen Davies

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